Men seem to understand physical violence; however there is still limited knowledge about psychological violence (non-physical) which was our focus in 2012. Added this year is ‘consent’ which we will focus on as a separate topic under Sexual Violence / Consent. Psychological (non physical violence) can be harder to spot, but the effects are often described by women as far worse. ‘Bruises can heal quickly but psychological scars often take a very long time’. The effect of this violence can be to rob someone of their confidence, their self-worth, the very essence of who they are. Sometimes using the example of ‘shell shock’ from the movies can help people understand the effects of this violence. All forms of violence have a similar cause – men exerting power and control over women.

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